查看完整版本 : Acol 叫牌制(英文版)

alexskt 2007-10-27 08:43 PM

Acol 叫牌制(英文版)

[b][size=5][color=navy]Introduction:[/color][/size][/b]


[size=3][color=black]Acol is a [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Contract_bridge][size=3][color=black]bridge[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] bidding system. It is named after a road in [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hampstead][size=3][color=black]Hampstead[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black], [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London][size=3][color=black]London[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black], where there was a bridge club in which the system started to evolve in the 1930s. According to [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Terence_Reese][size=3][color=black]Terence Reese[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black], its main devisers were [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Maurice_Harrison-Gray&action=edit][size=3][color=black]Maurice Harrison-Gray[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black], [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Jack_Marx_%28bridge_player%29&action=edit][size=3][color=black]Jack Marx[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] and [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S._J._Simon][size=3][color=black]S. J. Simon[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black]. Marx himself, writing in the [i]Contract Bridge Journal[/i] in December, 1952, said: "...the Acol system was pieced together by Skid Simon and myself the best part of 20 years ago." The first book on the system was written by [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Cohen_%28bridge_player%29][size=3][color=black]Ben Cohen[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black]. The system was popularised in Britain by [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iain_Macleod][size=3][color=black]Iain Macleod[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] in his book "Bridge is an Easy Game", published in [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1952][size=3][color=black]1952[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black]. The Acol system is continually evolving but the underlying principle is to keep the bidding as natural as possible. It is common in the [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commonwealth_of_Nations][size=3][color=black]British Commonwealth[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] but rarely played in [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States][size=3][color=black]America[/color][/size][/url][size=3].[/size]
[size=3][/size]
[size=2][color=navy](most of the information is from wikipedia)[/color][/size]

[[i] 本帖最後由 alexskt 於 2007-10-27 09:20 PM 編輯 [/i]]

alexskt 2007-10-27 08:47 PM

[b][size=5][color=navy]Bidding system structure:[/color][/size][/b]
[b][size=5][color=#000080][/color][/size][/b]

[size=4][color=black]Acol is a [u][b][color=darkgreen]natural system[/color][/b][/u]: most opening bids, responses and rebids are made with at least 4 cards in the suit bid, whilst most no trump bids are made with balanced hands. [/color][/size]
[size=4][/size]
[size=4][color=black][/color][/size]
[size=4][color=black]It is a [color=darkgreen][b][u]four-card major system[/u][/b][/color]: [b][size=5][color=red][u]only four card suits are required to open 1S or 1H[/u][/color][/size][/b], unlike [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_American][size=4][color=black]Standard American[/color][/size][/url][size=4][color=black] and many other systems where five card suits are required. [/color][/size]
[size=4][/size]
[size=4][color=black][/color][/size]
[size=4][color=black]It is an "approach forcing system": whether or not a bid is forcing, i.e. systemically requires a response, depends on the previous bidding (approach). [color=blue][b][u]This is in contrast to "level forcing systems", such as [/u][/b][/color][/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2/1_game_forcing][size=4][color=blue][b]2-over-1[/b][/color][/size][/url][size=4][color=black], where the level of the bid determines whether or not it is forcing. [/color][/size]
[size=4][/size]
[size=4][color=black][/color][/size]
[size=4][color=black]Acol makes [color=darkgreen][b][u]extensive use of limit bids[/u][/b][/color]: limit bids describe the hand so closely, in terms of [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_card_points][size=5][color=red][b]high card points[/b][/color][/size][/url][size=4][color=black] (HCP) and [b][size=5][color=red][u]shape[/u][/color][/size][/b], that the one who makes the limit bid is expected to pass on the next round, unless partner makes a forcing bid. [/color][/size]
[size=4][color=black]Understanding and correct use of limit bids and forcing bids is fundamental to applying the system: [color=navy]all no trump bids below the level of 4NT are limit bids as are all suit bids which merely repeat a suit already bid by the partnership[/color]; changes of suit may be forcing or not depending on the approach bids. [/color][/size]

[size=4][color=black][/color][/size]
[size=4][color=black]The level of the [u][color=darkgreen]1 NT opening bid influences other bids[/color][/u]: the normal choice is between a "weak no trump" (12-14 HCP) and a "strong no trump (15-17 HCP)[/color][/size]

alexskt 2007-10-27 08:53 PM

[b][size=5][color=navy]Acol Variants:[/color][/size][/b]


[size=3][color=black]Acol is an [size=4][color=darkgreen][b]unregulated system[/b][/color][/size]. There is no Acol governing body and [color=red][b][u]no single publication containing the "official" Acol [/u][/b][/color](unlike, for example, [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_American][size=3][color=black]Standard American[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] Yellow Card). It can be compared to a [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Living_language][size=3][color=black]living language[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] since it is liable to change at the whim of users. The main versions of Acol in use today are:[/color][/size]
[list][*][size=3][color=black][b][color=indigo]Acol[/color][/b]: [/color][/size][size=3][color=black]unregulated Acol, from the simple to the complex, remains in common use throughout the UK. At any one time the version in most common use will be known as "[color=darkgreen]Standard Acol[/color]" although this term will mean different things to different players and is becoming increasingly confused with Standard English Acol. [/color][/size][/list][size=3][/size]
[list][*][size=3][color=black][b][color=indigo]Standard English Acol[/color][/b] (originally called simply "Standard English"). [/color][color=navy]Developed by [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sandra_Landy&action=edit][size=3][color=navy]Sandra Landy[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=navy] under the auspices of the [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_Bridge_Union][size=3][color=navy]English Bridge Union[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] (EBU), this variant was designed to [color=red]facilitate the learning of bridge and to provide standardised guidance to novices[/color], intermediate players and their teachers. This variant uses the weak 1NT opening (12-14 [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_card_point][size=3][color=black]points[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black]). Simple conventions such as [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stayman][size=3][color=sienna][b]Stayman[/b][/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=sienna][b], [/b][/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Blackwood_convention][size=3][color=sienna][b]Blackwood[/b][/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=sienna][b] and [/b][/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jacoby_transfers][size=3][color=sienna][b]Transfers[/b][/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black][color=sienna][b] are included[/b][/color] at various stages in the learning process. It has been widely promulgated by the [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EBU][size=3][color=black]EBU[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] and by [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EBUTA][size=3][color=black]EBUTA[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] in particular, but the exact form is used mainly by those who have learned their bridge recently and those who taught them. [/color][/size][/list][size=3][/size]
[list][*][size=3][color=black][b][color=indigo]Benjaminised (Benji) Acol[/color][/b]: recognising that [color=darkgreen]strong 2 opening bids are rarely used[/color], the [color=red][b][u]2H and 2S openings are used to show weak hands containing long suits[/u][/b][/color] (under 10 [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_card_point][size=3][color=black]HCP[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black] and a 6 card suit). Very strong hands (8 [/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_evaluation][size=3][color=black]playing tricks[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=black]) are shown by an opening bid of 2C which forces a 2D response allowing suits to be shown. [color=green]The strongest hands (eg 23+ [/color][/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_card_point][size=3][color=green]points[/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=green] or a game force hand) are shown by an opening bid of 2D. [/color][/size][/list][size=3][/size]
[list][*][size=3][color=black][b][color=indigo]Reverse Benji[/color][/b]: identical to Benji [color=darkgreen]except that the 2C and 2D bids are switched in meaning[/color]. A 2C opening bid is now the strongest bid as in basic Acol. [/color][/size][/list]

alexskt 2007-10-27 08:55 PM

[b][size=5][color=navy]Standard Acol:[/color][/size][/b]

[size=3][/size]
[size=4][color=darkgreen][u]Opening bids[/u][/color][/size]
[u][size=4][color=#006400][/color][/size][/u]
[size=3]Opening bids promise [color=red][b][u]at least 12 high card [/u][/b][/color][/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_card_point][size=3][color=red][b]points[/b][/color][/size][/url][size=3][color=red][b][u] (HCP),[/u][/b][/color] or the [color=red]equivalent in HCP and shape[/color]. Apart from NT, opening bids guarantee the ability to make a rebid over any forcing response from partner. There are six [i]special[/i] opening bids which are quite closely defined, and one wideranging opening bid:[/size]
[list][*][size=3][color=sienna]Special opening bids[/color]: [/size][list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]1 NT[/color][/b] - Shows a balanced hand (4-3-3-3, 4-4-3-2 or 5-3-3-2). Subject to partnership agreement, it may be either weak (12-14 HCP), strong (15-17 or 16-18 HCP) or variable (ie varying between weak and strong according to vulnerability). Limit bid. [/size][*][size=3][color=darkgreen][b]2C[/b] [/color]- Conventional game-forcing bid, promising game-going values (normally 23+ HCP) and at least 5 quick tricks. Game forcing unless responder replies 2D and opener rebids 2NT. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2 of any other suit[/color][/b] - Shows a strong hand with at least eight [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hand_evaluation][size=3][color=#0000ff]playing tricks[/color][/size][/url][size=3] and a 6-card suit (or two 5-card suits). Forcing for one round. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2NT[/color][/b] - Shows a balanced hand with 20-22 HCP. Limit bid. [/size][*][size=3][color=darkgreen][b]3 of a suit[/b] [/color]- Pre-emptive, normally seven or more cards in the suit bid (may be six at favourable vulnerability), weak hand (not more than 10 HCP). Not forcing. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3NT[/color][/b] - Pre-emptive, shows a long solid minor suit and is called the [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gambling_3NT][size=3][color=#0000ff]Gambling 3NT[/color][/size][/url][size=3] [/size][/list][/list][size=3][/size]
[list][*][size=3][color=sienna]Wide-ranging opening bid[/color] (made if too strong to pass and unable to make one of the special opening bids): [/size][list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]1 of a suit[/color][/b] - Promises a minimum of 12 HCP and a 4-card suit, 11 HCP and a 5-card suit, or 10 HCP and a 6-card suit. Not forcing.[/size][/list][/list]

alexskt 2007-10-27 08:59 PM

[size=5][color=navy][b]Responses to 1 of a suit:[/b][/color][/size]
[b][size=5][color=#000080][/color][/size][/b]
[list][*][size=3][color=navy][b][color=darkgreen]pass[/color][/b] [/color]- less than [color=red]6 HCP[/color] [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2 of opener's suit[/color][/b] - at least [color=red]four card support and 6-9 HCP[/color]. Limit bid. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3 of opener's suit[/color][/b] - at least [color=red]four card support and 10-12 HCP[/color]. Invites game if opener has requisite strength (14 HCP or more). Limit bid. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]4 of opener's suit[/color][/b] - at least [color=red]five card support for opener's major and 6-10 HCP[/color], this is pre-emptive and to play. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]1 NT[/color][/b] - [color=red]6-9 HCP[/color], [color=red]denies ability to bid at 2 level[/color]. Not necessarily balanced. Limit bid. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2 NT[/color][/b] - [color=red]balanced, 10-12 HCP[/color]. Limit bid. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3 NT[/color][/b] - [color=red]balanced, 12-15 HCP[/color]. Limit bid. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]1 of a new suit[/color][/b] - [color=red]promises at least four cards in the suit bid, 6 HCP upwards[/color]. Forcing for one round. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2 of a new suit[/color] (below 2 of opener's suit)[/b] - [color=red]normally 5 card suit, at least a good 8 or 9 HCP[/color]. Forcing for one round [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]Jump in a new suit[/color][/b] - [color=red]5 card suit (or support for partner), at least 16 HCP[/color], [color=navy]Game force[/color].[/size][/list]

alexskt 2007-10-27 09:01 PM

[b][size=5][color=navy]Responses to 1 NT:[/color][/size][/b][list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2C[/color][/b] - [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stayman][size=3][color=#0000ff]Stayman[/color][/size][/url][size=3]. Opener responds 2D with no four card major, 2H with a four card heart suit and 2S with four spades (denies four hearts). Forcing for one round. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2 of any other suit[/color][/b] - weak takeout, opener must pass. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3 of a suit[/color][/b] - [color=red]shows a five card suit, forcing for one round[/color]. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2NT[/color][/b] - 11-12 HCP. invites game if opener is maximum (i.e. for a weak opening NT, if opener has 14 or a good 13 HCP). [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3NT[/color][/b] - to play. [/size][*][size=3][color=darkgreen][b]4C[/b] [/color]- [color=navy]asks for aces[/color]. ([/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerber_convention][size=3][color=#0000ff]Gerber[/color][/size][/url][size=3]) [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]4H, 4S[/color][/b] - to play. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]4NT[/color][/b] - [color=red]slam invitation[/color], opener bids 6NT with a maximum. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]5NT[/color][/b] - [color=red]slam invitation[/color], opener bids 6NT unless a minimum. Note: some play as invitation to 7NT; opener bids 6NT if minimum, 7NT with a maximum). [/size][/list]

alexskt 2007-10-27 09:03 PM

[b][size=5][color=darkslateblue]Responses to 2 NT:[/color][/size][/b][list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3C[/color][/b] - [/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baron_convention][size=3][color=#0000ff]Baron[/color][/size][/url][size=3]. Opener bids his lowest four card suit. Forcing. (Stayman may also be used as in responses to 1NT, i.e. 3D shows no 4 card major) [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3 of other suit[/color][/b] - [color=red]shows a five card suit, forcing to game.[/color] [/size][*][b][size=3][color=darkgreen]Other responses as over 1NT[/color][/size][/b][/list]

alexskt 2007-10-27 09:05 PM

[b][size=5][color=navy]Responses to 2 C:[/color][/size][/b][list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2D[/color][/b] - [color=red]negative.[/color] Responder [color=red]lacks the strength for a positive response[/color]. Unless opener rebids 2NT (balanced, 23-24 HCP, which may be passed), the sequence is forcing to game. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2NT[/color][/b] - [color=red]fairly balanced, 8 or more HCP[/color]. [color=blue]Forcing to game[/color]. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2 of a suit[/color][/b] - [color=red]at least five in the suit[/color], [color=blue]the equivalent of an ace and a king in high cards[/color]. Forcing to game. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3 of opener's suit[/color][/b] - [color=red]5-8 HCP[/color], [color=blue]at least 3 card support. Forcing to game[/color]. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3 of a suit[/color][/b] - [color=red]Solid suit of at least six cards.[/color] [color=blue]Forcing to game.[/color] [/size][/list]

alexskt 2007-10-27 09:06 PM

[b][size=5][color=navy]Responses to 2 of a suit:[/color][/size][/b][list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2NT[/color][/b] - [color=red]negative[/color]. Responder lacks the strength for a positive response. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]Simple bid of a new suit[/color][/b] - 8 or more HCP, at least five in the suit. Forcing to game. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3 of opener's suit[/color][/b] - 5-8 HCP, at least 3 card support. Forcing to game. [/size][*][size=3][color=darkgreen][b]3NT[/b] [/color]- flat hand, 8-11 HCP. Not forcing. [/size][/list]

alexskt 2007-10-27 09:07 PM

[b][size=5][color=navy]Opener's suit rebid after one-level opening:[/color][/size][/b][list][*][size=3][b][color=green]Rebid of own suit at lowest level[/color][/b] - minimum hand, at least a five card suit, 12-15 HCP, non-forcing. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]Jump rebid of own suit[/color][/b] - strong hand, normally at least 6 card suit, 15-19 HCP, non-forcing but highly invitational. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]Bid of new suit at lower level than first suit[/color][/b] - minimum hand, 12-15 HCP, first suit has at least as many cards as second suit, non-forcing. [/size][*][b][size=3][color=darkgreen]Bid of new suit at higher level than first suit but without jumping[/color] ("[/size][url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_bid][size=3][color=#0000ff]Reverse bid[/color][/size][/url][size=3]")[/size][/b][size=3] - strong hand, 16-19 HCP, first suit has more cards than second suit, forcing for one round. [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]Jump in new suit[/color][/b] - strong hand, 16-19 HCP, first suit has at least as many cards as second suit, forcing for one round.[/size][/list]

[[i] 本帖最後由 alexskt 於 2007-10-27 09:17 PM 編輯 [/i]]

alexskt 2007-10-27 09:19 PM

[size=5][color=navy]Opener's NT rebid after one-level opening:[/color][/size]


[size=4][color=darkslategray][b](The following bids assume a weak NT opening)[/b][/color][/size]
[size=4][color=darkslategray][b]After suit response at one level the traditional rebids are:[/b][/color][/size]

[list][*][color=darkgreen][size=3][b]1NT[/b] - [color=black]balanced, 15-16 HCP, limit bid[/color] [/size][/color][*][color=darkgreen][size=3][b]2NT[/b] - [color=black]balanced, 17-18 HCP, limit bi[/color]d [/size][/color][*][color=darkgreen][size=3][b]3NT[/b] - [color=black]balanced, 19 HCP, limit bid[/color][/size][/color][color=black] [/color][/list][size=4][color=darkslategray][b]However, the modern approach modifies the ranges for the rebids thus:[/b][/color][/size]
[list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]1NT[/color][/b] - balanced, 15-17 HCP, limit bid [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2NT[/color][/b] - balanced, 18-19 HCP, limit bid [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3NT[/color][/b] - Often an Acol two type of hand prepared to play in NT.[/size][/list][size=4][color=darkslategray][b]After a suit response at two level the traditional rebids are:[/b][/color][/size]
[list][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]2NT[/color][/b] - balanced, 15-17 HCP, limit bid [/size][*][size=3][b][color=darkgreen]3NT[/color][/b] - balanced, 18-19 HCP, limit bid [/size][/list][size=3]The modern approach is to use the 2NT rebid as forcing and use 3NT as 15-17 with support for the minor that responder has bid (one option).[/size]
[size=3]After the 2NT (forcing) rebid, either bid naturally or use an enquiry (3c) to seek definition of the 2NT rebid.[/size]

alexskt 2007-10-27 09:20 PM

[size=5][color=navy][b]Fourth suit forcing:[/b][/color][/size]

[size=3]A bid of the fourth suit at the [color=red]2 level by responder is a one round force[/color], usually [color=blue]asking opener to bid no trumps with a stopper in the fourth suit[/color]. A fourth suit bid at the[color=red] 3 level is similar[/color], [color=blue]but forcing to game.[/color][/size]
頁: [1]
查看完整版本: Acol 叫牌制(英文版)